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Casein proteins are the primary constituents of animal milk protein (accounting roughly around 80% of the total milk protein). The amount of casein in cow?s milk varies according to the breed of cow andstage of lactation, but is generally in the range of 24-29 g L-1. Casein contains 0.7-0.9 % of phosphorus, covalently bound to the protein by a serine ester linkage. Casein is consequently known as phopho-protein. Casein protein contains all the amino acids essential to man in high proportion, with the possible exception of cysteine. Thus, casein may be considered as a highly nutritious protein.
Casein exists in milk in complex groups of molecules (referred to as calcium phopho-caseinate)that are called ?micelles?. The micelles consist of casein molecules, calcium, inorganic phosphate and citrate ions, and have a typical molecular weight of several hundred millions. Casein micelles exist in milk as a very stable colloidal dispersion. The caseins, as proteins, are made up ofmany hundreds of individual amino acids, each of which may have a positive or a negativecharge, depending on the pH of the [milk] system. At some pH value, all the positive chargesand all the negative charges on the [casein] protein will be in balance, so that the net chargeon the protein will be zero. That pH value is known as the isoelectric point (IEP) of theprotein and is generally the pH at which the protein is least soluble. For casein, the IEP isapproximately 4.6 and it is the pH value at which acid casein is precipitated. In milk, whichhas a pH of about 6.6, the casein micelles have a net negative charge and are quite stable. Casein has been shown to consist of several individual casein components, referredto as ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-casein.
Casein, like whey, is easy to use and can be consumed any time of the day. However, due to casein's slow digestion and amino acid release, it's generally taken when you might be without food for a long period of time.
As such, many people prefer to consume casein at night with the thought that consuming a slow-digesting protein will help stave off catabolism (muscle breakdown). While there is little research examining the use of casein overnight, it has been shown to reduce protein breakdown and thus may be useful in such situations.
How much casein to consume depends on a number of factors like weight, total protein intake, and whether you're consuming it alone or with other protein sources.
Therefore, if you're taking casein alone, it can be beneficial to devour a large dose to try and maximize anabolism. 40 to 50 grams of casein protein (if consumed alone) for a 200-pound muscle-building male who wants to maximize the muscle-building response, is recommended.
Casein protein can also be combined with whey protein to enhance the anabolic response; if you are seeking a great option for after a workout, try combining whey and casein protein supplements in a 2:1 ratio, respectively.
Furthermore, the characteristic coagulating property of casein protein when it?s exposed to acidic environments and/or high temperatures make it tricky to bake with or add to hot foods since it will tend to be insoluble and clump up. But a great application of casein protein powder (for those who like to get creative in the kitchen) is to make ?protein pudding?, also colloquially referred to as ?sludge?. Since casein powder will readily gel/thicken up when mixed in minute amounts of liquid this can be a nice treat for those who get tired of always drinking their protein supplements.A small number of people are actually allergic to casein protein. They might experience side effects such as upset stomach, pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and/or other GI problems.Additionally, consuming large amounts of casein might cause a bit of digestive distress even in the non-allergic. Because casein gels, it can lead to a spot of bloating and general discomfort in mega-doses-especially for the people around you. Don't use casein protein if you're allergic, or if your physician has advised you against it. Furthermore, don't Hoover casein by the fistful.As a rule, purchasing supplements whose maker can provide lab analysis of their products is recommended. This ensures that what's on the label is actually in the bottle. Also note that many companies sell protein blends containing both casein and whey. Since these blends are typically more expensive, remember that you can always craft your own casein-whey cocktail. Please, don't actually add any liquor.
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